Part I Writing(30 minutes)Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay based on the picture below.You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then comment on the kid's understanding of going to school.You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
“Why am I going to school if my phone already knows everything?”
Part II Listening Comprehension(30 minutes)
Directions : In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the end ofeach conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both theconversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will bea pause.During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B), C.and D),and decide which is the best answer.Then mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1.A.He will give the woman some tips on the game.
B.The woman has good reason to quit the game.
C.He is willing to play chess with the woman.
D.The woman should go on playing chess.
2.A.The man can forward the mail to Mary.
B.She can call Mary to take care of the mail.
C.Mary probably knows Sally's new address.
D.She would like to resume contact with Sally.
3.A.His handwriting has a unique style.
B.His notes are not easy to read.
C.He did not attend today's class.
D.He is very pleased to be able to help.
4.A.The man had better choose another restaurant.
B.The new restaurant is a perfect place for dating.
C.The new restaurant caught her fancy immediately.
D.The man has good taste in choosing the restaurant.
5.A.He has been looking forward to spring.
B.He has been waiting for the winter sale.
C.He will clean the woman's boots for spring.
D.He will help the woman put things away.
6.A.The woman is rather forgetful.
B.The man appreciates the woman's help.
C.The man often lends books to the woman.
D.The woman often works overtime at weekends.
7.A.Go to work on foot.
B.Take a sightseeing trip.
C.Start work earlier than usual.
D.Take a walk when the weather is nice.
8.A.The plane is going to land at another airport.
B.All flights have been delayed due to bad weather.
C.Temporary closing has disturbed the airport's operation.
D.The airport's management is in real need of improvement.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9.A.It specializes in safety from leaks.
B.It is headquartered in London.
C.It has a partnership with LCP.
D.It has a chemical processing plant.
10.A.He is Mr.Grand's friend.
B.He is a safety inspector.
C.He is a salesman.
D.He is a chemist.
11.A.Director of the safety department.
B.Mr.Grand's personal assistant.
C.Head of the personnel department.
D.The public relations officer.
12. A.Walt for Mr.Grand to call back.
B.Leave a message for Mr.Grand.
C.Provide details of their products and services.
D.Send a comprehensive description of their work.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13.A.She learned playing the violin from a famous French musician.
B.She dreamed of working and living in a European country.
C.She read a lot about European musicians and their music.
D.She listened to recordings of many European orchestras.
14.A.She began taking violin lessons as a small child.
B.She was a pupil of a famous European violinist.
C.She gave her first performance with her father.
D.She became a professional violinist at fifteen.
15.A.It gave her a chance to explore the city.
B.It was the chance of a lifetime.
C.It was a great challenge to her.
D.It helped her learn classical French music.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage, you will hearsome questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After youhear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B),C.and D ).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single linethrough the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16.A.There are mysterious stories behind his works.
B.There are many misunderstandings about him.
C.His works have no match worldwide.
D.His personal history is little known.
17.A.He moved to Stratford-on-Avon in his childhood.
B.He failed to go beyond grammar school.
C.He was a member of the town council.
D.He once worked in a well-known acting company.
18. A.Writers of his time had no means to protect their works.
B.Possible sources of clues about him were lost in a fire.
C.His works were adapted beyond recognition.
D.People of his time had little interest in him.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. A.Learn the local customs.
B.Make hotel reservations.
C.Book tickets well in advance.
D.Have the right documents.
21.A.Contact your agent.
B.Get a lift if possible.
C.Use official transport.
D.Have a friend meet you.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22.A.Cut down production cost.
B.Sell inexpensive products.
C.Specialise in gold ornaments.
D.Refine the taste of his goods.
23.A.At a national press conference.
B.During a live television interview.
C.During a local sales promotion campaign.
D.At a meeting of top British businesspeople.
25.A.The words of some businesspeople are just rubbish.
B.He who never learns from the past is bound to fail.
C.There should be a limit to one's sense of humour.
D.He is not laughed at, that laughs at himself first.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for the firsttime, you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for thesecond time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have justheard.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what youhave written.
Looking at the basic biological systems, the world is not doing very well.Yet economic indicators show the world is 26 Despite a slow start at the beginning of the eighties, global economic output increased by more than a fifth during the 27 The economy grew, trade increased, and millions of new jobs were created.How can biological indicators show the 28 of economic indicators?
The answer is that the economic indicators have a basic fault: they show no difference between resource uses that 29 progress and those uses that will hurt it.The main measure of economic progress is the gross national product (GNP). 30 , this totals the value of all goods and services produced and subtracts loss in value of factories and equipment.Developed a half-century ago, GNP helped 31 a common way among countries of measuring change in economic output.For some time, this seemed to work 32 well, but serious weaknesses are now appearing.As indicated earlier, GNP includes loss in value of factories and equipment, but it does not 33 the loss of natural resources, including nonrenewable resources such as oil or renewable resources such as forests.
This basic fault can produce a 34 sense of national economic health.According to GNP, for example, countries that overcut forests actually do better than those that preserve their forests.The trees cut down are counted as income but no subtraction is made for 35 the forests.
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension ( 40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for
each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
The U.S.Department of Education is making efforts to ensure that all students have equal access to a quality education.Today it is 36 the launch of the Excellent Educators for All Initiative.The initiative will help states and school districts support great educators for the students who need them most.
"All children are 37 to a high-quality education regardless of their race, zip code or family income.It is 38 important that we provide teachers and principals the support they need to help students reach their full 39 ," U.S.Secretary of Education Arne Duncan said." Despite the excellent work and deep 40 of our nation's teachers and principals, students in high-poverty, high- minority schools are unfairly treated across our country.We have to do better.Local leaders and educators will 41 their own creative solutions, but we must work together to 42 our focus on how to better recruit, support and 43 effective teachers and principals for all students, especially the kids who need them most."
Today's announcement is another important step forward in improving access to a quality education, a 44 of President Obama's year of action.Later today, Secretary Duncan will lead a roundtable discussion with principals and school teachers from across the country about the 45 of working in high-need schools and how to adopt promising practices for supporting great educators in these schools.
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it.Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter.Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
The Changes Facing Fast Food
A.Fast-food firms have to be a thick-skinned bunch.Health experts regularly criticise them severelyfor selling food that makes people fat.Critics even complain that McDonald's, whose logosymbolises calorie excess, should not have been allowed to sponsor the World Cup.These arethings fast-food firms have learnt to cope with.But not perhaps for much longer.The burgerbusiness faces more pressure from regulators at a time when it is already adapting strategies inresponse to shifts in the global economy.
B)Fast food was once thought to be recession-proof.When consumers need to cut spending, the logicgoes, cheap meals like Big Macs and Whoppers become even more attractive.Such "trading down"proved true for much of the latest recession, when fast-food companies picked up customers who could no longer afford to eat at casual restaurants.Traffic was boosted in America, the home of fast food, with discounts and promotions, such as $1 menus and cheap combination meals.
C)As a result, fast-food chains have weathered the recession better than their more expensive competitors.In 2009 sales at full-service restaurants in America fell by more than 6% , but total sales remained about the same at fast-food chains.In some markets, such as Japan, France and Britain, total spending on fast food increased.Same-store sales in America at McDonald's, the world's largest fast-food company, did not decline throughout the downturn.Panera Bread, an American fast-food chain known for its fresh ingredients, performed well, too, because it offers higher-quality food at lower prices than restaurants.
D)But not all fast-food companies have been as fortunate.Many, such as Burger King, have seen sales fall.In a severe recession, while some people trade down to fast food, many others eat at home more frequently to save money.David Palmer, an analyst at UBS, a bank, says smaller fast- food chains in America, such as Jack in the Box and Carl's Jr., have been hit particularly hard in this downturn because they are competing with the global giant McDonald's, which increased spending on advertising by more than 7% last year as others cut back.
E.Some fast-food companies also sacrificed their own profits by trying to give customers better value.During the recession companies set prices low, hoping that once they had tempted customers through the door they would be persuaded to order more expensive items.But in many cases that strategy did not work.Last year Burger King franchisees (特许经营人)sued (起诉)the company over its double-cheeseburger promotion, claiming it was unfair for them to be repuired to sell these for $1 when they cost$1.10 to make.In May a judge ruled in favour of Burger King.Nevertheless, the company may still be cursing its decision to promote cheap choices over more expensive ones because items on its "value menu" now account for around 20% of all sales, upfrom 12% last October.
F.Analysts expect the fast-food industry to grow modestly this year.But the downturn is makingcompanies rethink their strategies.Many are now introducing higher-priced items to entice (引诱)consumers away from $1 specials.KFC, a division of Yum! Brands, which also owns Taco Belland Pizza Hut, has launched a chicken sandwich that costs around $5.And in May Burger Kingintroduced barbecue (烧烤)pork ribs at $7 for eight.
G.Companies are also trying to get customers to buy new and more items, including drinks.McDonald's started selling better coffee as a challenge to Starbucks.Its " McCafe" line nowaccounts for an estimated 6% of sales in America.Starbucks has sold rights to its Seattle's Bestcoffee brand to Burger King, which will start selling it later this year.
H.As fast-food companies shift from "super size" to "more buys", they need to keep customer traffichigh throughout the day.Many see breakfast as a big opporttmity, and not just for fatty food.McDonald's will start selling porridge (粥)in America next year.Breakfast has the potential to bevery profitable, says Sara Senatore of Bernstein, a research firm, because the margins can be high.Fast-food companies are also adding midday and late-night snacks, such as blended drinks andwraps.The idea is that by having a greater range of things on the menu, "we can sell to consumersproducts they want all day," says Rick Carucci., the .chief financial officer of Yum ! Brands.
I.But what about those growing waistlines? So far, fast-food firms have cleverly avoided governmentregulation.By providing healthy options, like salads and low-calorie sandwiches, they have at leastgiven the impression of doing something about helping to fight obesity (肥胖症).These offeringsare not necessarily loss-leaders, as they broaden the appeal of outlets to groups of diners thatinclude some people who don't want to eat a burger.But customers cannot be forced to ordersalads instead of fries.
J.In the future, simply offering a healthy option may not be good enough."Every packaged-food and restaurant company I know is concerned about regulation right now," says Mr.Palmer of UBS.America's health-reform bill, which Congress passed this year, requires restaurant chains with 20 ormore outlets to put the calorie-content of items they serve on the menu.A study by the NationalBureau of Economic Research, which tracked the effects on Starbucks of a similar calorie-postinglaw in New York City in 2007, found that the average calorie-count per transaction fell 6% andrevenue increased 3% at Starbucks stores where a Dunldn Donuts outlet was nearby--a sign, it issaid, that menu-labelling could favour chains that have more healthy offerings.
K.In order to avoid other legislation in America and elsewhere, fast-food companies will have tocontinue innovating (创新).Walt Riker of McDonald's claims the change it has made in its menumeans it offers more healthy items than it did a few years ago."We probably sell more vegetables,more milk, more salads, more apples than any restaurant business in the world," he says.But therecent proposal by a county in California to ban McDonald's from including toys in its high-calorie"Happy Meals", because legislators believe it attracts children to unhealthy food, suggests there isa lot more left to do.
46.Some people propose laws be made to stop McDonald's from attaching toys to its food specials for children.
47.Fast-food finns may not be able to cope with pressures from food regulation in the near future.
48.Burger King will start to sell Seattle's Best coffee to increase sales.
49.Some fast-food firms provide healthy food to give the impression they are helping to tackle the obesity problem.
50.During the recession, many customers turned to fast food to save money.
51.Many people eat out less often to save money in times of recession.
52.During the recession, Burger King's promotional strategy of offering low-priced items often proved ineffective.
53.Fast-food restaurants can make a lot of money by selling breakfast.
54.Many fast-food companies now expect to increase their revenue by introducing higher-priced items.
55.A newly-passed law asks big fast-food chains to specify the calorie count of what they serve on the menu.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A., B), C.andD ).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
If you think a high-factor sunscreen (防晒霜)keeps you safe from harmful rays, you may be wrong.Research in this week's Nature shows that while factor 50 reduces the number of melanomas(黑瘤)and delays their occurrence, it can't prevent them.Melanomas are the most aggressive skin cancers.You have a higher risk if you have red or blond hair, fair skin, blue or green eyes, or sunburn easily, or if a close relative has had one.Melanomas are more common if you have periodic intense exposure to the sun.Other skin cancers are increasingly likely with long-term exposure.
There is continuing debate as to how effective sunscreen is in reducing melanomas
the evidence is weaker than it is for preventing other types of skin cancer.A 2011 Australian study of 1,621 people found that people randomly selected to apply sunscreen daily had half the rate of melanomas of people who used cream as needed.A second study, comparing 1,167 people with melanomas to 1,101 who didn't have the cancer, found that using sunscreen routinely, alongside other protection such as hats,long sleeves or staying in the shade, did give some protection.This study said other forms of sun protection not sunscreen seemed most beneficial.The study relied on people remembering what they had done over each decade of their lives, so it's not entirely reliable.But it seems reasonable to think sunscreen gives people a false sense of security in the sun.
Many people also don't use sunscreen properly
applying insufficient amounts, failing to reapply after a couple of hours and staying in the sun too long.It is sunburn that is most worrying recent research shows five episodes of sunburn in the teenage years increases the risk of all skin cancers.
The good news is that a combination of sunscreen and covering up can reduce melanoma rates, as shown by Australian figures from their slip-slop-slap campaign.So if there is a heat wave this summer, it would be best for us, too, to slip on a shirt, slop on (抹上)sunscreen and slap on a hat.
56.What is people's common expectation of a high-factor sunscreen?
A.It will delay the occurrence of skin cancer.
B.It will protect them from sunburn.
C.It will keep their skin smooth and fair.
D.It will work for people of any skin color.
57.What does the research in Nature say about a high-factor sunscreen?
A.It is ineffective in preventing melanomas.
B.It is ineffective in case of intense sunlight.
C.It is ineffective with long-term exposure.
D.It is ineffective for people with fair skin.
58.What do we learn from the 2011 Australian study of 1,621 people?
A.Sunscreen should be applied alongside other protection measures.
B.High-risk people benefit the most from the application of sunscreen.
C.Irregular application of sunscreen does women more harm than good.
D.Daily application of sunscreen helps reduce the incidence of melanomas.
59.What does the author say about the second Australian study?
A.It misleads people to rely on sunscreen for protection.
B.It helps people to select the most effective sunscreen.
C.It is not based on direct observation of the subjects.
D.It confirms the results of the first Australian study.
60.What does the author suggest to reduce melanoma rates?
A.Using both covering up and sunscreen.
B.Staying in the shade whenever possible.
C.Using covering up instead of sunscreen.
D.Applying the right amount of sunscreen.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Across the rich world, well-educated people increasingly work longer than the less-skilled.Some65% of American men aged 62 -74 with a professional degree are in the workforce, compared with32% of men with only a high-school certificate.This gap is part of a deepening divide between the well-educated well-off and the unskilled poor.Rapid technological advance has raised the incomes of the highly skilled while squeezing those of the unskilled.The consequences, for individuals and society, are profound.
The world is facing an astonishing rise in the number of old people, and they will live longer than ever before.Over the next 20 years the global population of those aged 65 or more will almost double, from 600 million to 1.1 billion.The experience of the 20th century, when greater longevity (长寿)translated into more years in retirement rather than more years at work, has persuaded many observers that this shift will lead to slower economic growth, while the swelling ranks of pensioners will create government budget problems.
But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the idle old misses a new trend, the growing gap between the skilled and the unskilled.Employment rates are falling among younger unskilled people, whereas older skilled folk are working longer.The divide is most extreme in America, where well-educated baby-boomers (二战后生育高峰期出生的美国人)are putting off retirement while many less-skilled younger people have dropped out of the workforce.
Policy is partly responsible.Many European governments have abandoned policies that used to encourage people to retire early.Rising life expectancy (预期寿命), combined with the replacement of generous defmed-benefit pension plans with less generous defined-contribution ones, means that even the better-off must work longer to have a comfortable retirement.But the changing nature of work also plays a big role.Pay has risen sharply for the highly educated, and those people continue to reap rich rewards into old age because these days the educated elderly are more productive than the preceding generation.Technological change may well reinforce that shift: the skills that complement computers, from management knowhow to creativity, do not necessarily decline with age.
61.What is happening in the workforce in rich countries?
A.Younger people are replacing the elderly.
B.Well-educated people tend to work longer.
C.Unemployment rates are rising year after year.
D.People with no college degree do not easily find work.
62.What has helped deepen the divide between the well-off and the poor?
A.Longer life expectancies.
B.A rapid technological advance.
C.Profound changes in the workforce.
D.A growing number of the well-educated.
63.What do many observers predict in view of the experience of the 20th century?
A.Economic growth will slow down.
B.Government budgets will increase.
C.More people will try to pursue higher education.
D.There will be more competition in the job market.
64.What is the result of policy changes in European countries?
A.Unskilled workers may choose to retire early.
B.More people have to receive in-service training.
C.Even wealthy people must work longer to live comfortably in retirement.
D.People may be able to enjoy generous defined-benefits from pension plans.
65.What is characteristic of work in the 21st century?
A.Computers will do more complicated work.
B.More will be taken by the educated young.
C.Most jobs to be done will be the creative ones.
D.Skills are highly valued regardless of age.
Part Ⅳ Translation ( 30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English.You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
Part Ⅰ Writing
一、提出观点：手机在学习中虽然重要但并非必不可少(play an imoortant but not indispensable role)
make good use of充分利用
pay close attention to密切关注……
be oblivious to无视……
attach importance to重视……
be overwhelmed by充满……
text messages to编辑短信至……
1.For a long time，many students have paid much attention to the
development in….let alone the updating of…长期以来，许多学
2.Wim the increasing awareness of…，more and more people
choose to...instead of…随着人们……意识的提高，越来越多的人
1.W:I'm going to give up playing chess.I lost again today.
M:Just because you lost? Is that any reaSon to quit?
Q:What does the man imply?
本题的关键在于听懂反问句和反问的语调。女士说因为今天又输了，所以打算放弃下象棋。男士没有正面回应，而是反问了两句：Just because you lost?Is that any reaSon to quit?”仅仅是因为输了吗?那能算是放弃的理由吗?”言外之意就是不该放弃。换句话说就是，男士建议女士继续下棋。故本题答案为D)。
2.M：Do you know Sally’s new address?She S got Some mall nere，anu I’d liKe to forward it to her.W：Well，we've not been in touch for quite a while.Let’s see.Mary should know it.
Q：What does the woman mean?
C)。 选项中出现了mail，address和contact等词，可以推测对话内容和邮件有关：由选项中的玛丽和萨利两个人名可知对话的内容涉及另外两个人，人物较多，听录音时应注意区分人物之间的关系，做好标记；另外，选项A)以the mail作主语，选项B)和D)以she作主语，可以推测该题会从女士的角度提问，女士的话为听音重点。
本题的关键在于听到细节“Mary should know it.”男士想把萨利的邮件转寄给她，问女士是否知道她的地址。女士说自己很久没跟萨利联系了，但是结尾补充了一句：“玛丽应该知道地址。”故本题答案为C)。
3．W：I missed classes this morning.Could you please lend me your notes?
M：My notes?You've never seen my handwriting,have you?
Q：What does the man imply?
解题的关键是听懂反意疑问句。女士想要借男士的笔记看，男士没有正面回答，而是反问道：You've never seen my handwriting，have you?“你没看过我的笔迹，对吗?”言外之意就是自己的笔迹难以辨认，不易读懂。故本题答案为B)。
4.M：I'm taking my girlfriend to the fancy new restaurant for her birthday tonight.
W：1 went there last weekend.I found it rather disappointing.
Q：What does the woman mean?
5.W：Winter is over at last.Time to put away my gloves and boots.
M：I've been waiting for this for months.
Q：What does the man mean?
6.W：Thank you for bnnging the books back.
M：I thought you need them over the weekend.Many thanks for letting me use them. Q：What do we learn from the conversation?
B). 四个选项中，A)和D)以the woman为主语，B)和C)以the man为主语，选项在内容上较分散，可以推测该题并非针对男士或女士个人的话提问，而是考查对整个对话的理解，听音时应注意从全局把握对话内容。
7.W：Are you working flexible hours?
M：N0，I'm not.The weather today is So nice，So I decided to walk to work，and that meant I had to leavean hour earlier than usual.
Q：What did the mail decide to do?
A)。 选项中涉及work，on foot，trip和walk等词，可推测对话和步行上班或旅行相关。四个选项均为动词短语，由此可推断该题会对建议或计划进行提问，应特别注意和建议或计划相关的表述。
8.W：Our plane has been circling for a long time.Why the delay?
M：The airport Was closed for a while this morning，and things are still not back to normal。
Q：What does the man mean?
女士问，飞机已经盘旋了很长时间，为什么会延迟。男士回答说，机场早晨关闭了一段时间，而且仍然没有恢复正常：由此可知，机场出现的问题是closed for a while，而选项C)中的temporaryclosing正是该表述的同义转述，故本题答案为C)。
W:Good Morning, this is TGC!
M:Good morning, Walter Barry here, calling from London.Could I speak to Mr.Grand, please?
W:Who's calling, please?
M:Walter Barry, from London.W:What is it about, please?
M :Well, (9) I understand that your company has a chemical processing plant.My own company LCP, LiquidControl Products, is a leader in safety from leaks in the field of chemical processing.( 10 ) I'd like to speakto Mr.Grand to discuss ways in which we could help TGC to protect itself from such problems and savemoney at the same time.
W:Yes, I see.Well, Mr.Grand is not available just now.M:Can you tell me when I could reach him?
W :He's very busy for the next few days.Then he'll be away in New York.So it's difficult to give you a time.M:Could I speak to Someone else, perhaps?
W:Who, in particular?
M:A colleague, for example?
W:(11) You are speaking to his perSonal assistant.I can deal with calls for Mr.Grand.M:Yes, well, could I ring him tomorrow?
W:No, I'm Sorry.He won't be free tomorrow.Listen, let me suggest Something.(12) You send us details ofyour products and services, together with references from other companies.And then we'll contact you.M:Yes, that's very kind of you.I have your address.
W:Very good, Mr?
M:Barry.Walter Barry, from LCP in London.
W:Right, Mr.Barry.We look forward to hearing from you.M:Thank you, goodbye.
9.What do we learn about the woman’s company?
10.What do we learn about the man?
11.What is the woman’s position in her company?
12.What does the woman suggest the man do?
C)。 对话中，女士说let me suggest Something，由此可知，其后就是女士对男士的建议，即为该题的答案。对话中，女士建议男士将其公司产品和服务的详情以及其他公司的推荐信一并寄送过来，之后会和男士联系，故C)为答案。
M:Miss Yamada,( 13 ) did you ever think that you would find yourself living and working in the westernworld?
W：(13) No, not really, although I've always listened to recordings of great orchestras from Europe.
M:So you enjoyed classical music even when you were very young?
W:Oh, yes.! was only a child.
M:You were born in 1955.Is that right?
W:Yes, (14) I began violin lesSons at school when I was 6.
M:As young as that.Did you like it?
W:Oh, yes.Very much.
M:When did you first play on your own? I mean, when did you give your first performance?
W:I think I was 8...? No, 9.I just had my birthday a week before, and my father had bought me a new violin.
I played a small piece at the school concert.
M:Did you know then that you would become a professional violinist?
W:Yes, I think So.I enjoy playing the violin very much, and I didn't mind practicing, Sometimes three or four hours a day.
M:And when did you first come to Europe?
W:I was very lucky.When I was fifteen, I won a scholarship to a college in Paris.That was for a three-year course.
M :How did your parents feel about that?
W:I think they were pleased and worried at the same time.( 15 ) It was the chance of a lifetime.But ofcourse I would be thousands of miles from home.Anyway, I studied in Paris for three years and then wentback to Tokyo.
13.What do we know about the woman before she went to Europe?
14.What does the woman say about her music experience?
15.What does the woman say about her study in Paris?
What makes a perSon famous? This is a mystery that many people have carefully thought about.All kinds of myths surround the lives of well-known people.Most people are familiar with the works of William Shakespeare, one of the greatest English writers of the 16th and 17th centuries.(16) Yet how many know Shakespeare the perSon, the man behind the works? After centuries of research, scholars are still trying to discover Shakespeare's perSonal history.It is not easily found in his writings.Authors of the time could not protect their works.An acting company, for example, could change a play if they wanted to.Nowadays, writers have copyrights that protect their work.
Many myths arose about Shakespeare.Some said he had no formal education.Others believed that he began his career by tending the horses of wealthy men.All of these myths are interesting, but are they true? Probably not.(17) Shakespeare's father was a respected man in Stratford-on-Avon, a member of the town council.He sent young William to grammar school.Most people of Elizabethan times did not continue beyond grammar school; So, Shakespeare did have, at least, an average education.(18) Some parts of Shakespeare's life will always remain unknown.The Great London Fire of 1666 burned many important documents that could have been a Source of clues.We will always be left with many questions and few facts.
16.What does the speaker say about William Shakespeare?
17.What do we learn about Shakespeare’s father?
18.Why does the speaker say parts of Shakespeare’s life will remain a mystery?
Wherever you go and for whatever reaSon, it's important to be safe.(19) While the majority of people you will meet when travelling are sure to be friendly and welcoming, there are dangers--theft being the most common.
Just as in your home country, do not expect everyone you meet to be friendly and helpful.It's important to prepare for your trip in advance and to take precautions while you are travelling.(20) As you prepare for your trip, make sure you have the right paperwork.You don't want to get to your destination only to find you have the wrong visa, or worse, that your passport isn't valid any more.AlSo, make sure you travel with proper medical insurance, So that if you are sick or injured during your travels, you will be able to get treatment.If you want to drive while you are abroad, make sure you have an international driver's license.
(21) When you get to your destination, use official transport.Always go to bus and taxi stands.Don't accept rides from strangers who offer you a lift.If there is no meter in the taxi, agree on a price before you get in.If you prefer to stay in cheap hotels while travelling, make sure you can lock the door of your room from the inside.Finally, remember to smile.It's the friendliest and most sincere form of communication, and is sure to be understood in any part of the world !
预览三道题各选项，通过选项中出现的theft，cheating，air crash，road accidents，local customs， reservations，book tickets，docm、aents，agent和transport等词，可以推测这篇短文谈论的是旅游出行的话题。
19.What is mentioned as a most common danger when people go travelling abroad?
20.What is the most important thing to do when you prepare for your trip abroad?
21.What does the speaker suggest you do when you arrive at your destination?
(25) The British are supposed to be famous for laughing at themselves, but even their sense of humour has a limit, as the British retailer Gerald Ratner found out to his cost.(22) When Ratner took over his father's chain of 130 jewelry shops in 1984, he introduced a very clear company policy.He decided that his shops should sell downmarket products at the lowest possible prices.It was a great success.The British public loved his cheap gold earrings and his tasteless silver ornaments.By 1991, Ratner's company had 2,400 shops and it was worth over 680 million pounds.But in April of that year, Gerald Ratner made a big mistake.(23) At a big meeting of top British businesspeople, he showed up and explained the secret of his success."People say' How can we sell our goods for such a low price?' I say ' Because they are abSolute rubbish.' " His audience roared with laughter.But the British newspapers and the British public were not So amused.(24) People felt insulted and stayed away from Ratner's shops.Sales fell and 6 months after his speech, Ratner's share price had fallen by 42%.The following year, things got worse and Gerald Rather was forced to resign.By the end of 1992, he lost his company, his career and his house.Even worse, 25,000 of his employees had lost their jobs.(25) It had been a very expensive joke.
预览四道题各选项，结合选项中的production，products，ornaments，sales promotion， businesspeople，humour和laughs at等词可推断本文和做生意有关系，可能涉及做生意需要的幽默。
22.What did Gerald Ratner decide to do when he took over his father’s shops?
B)。 短文提到，拉特纳在1984年接管了父亲的珠宝连锁店后，决定以最低的价格卖出低档产品，选项B)中sell inexpensive products是原文sell downmarket products的同义转述，故B)为答案。
23.On what occasion did Gerald Ratner explain the secret of his success?
24.How did people feel when they learned of Gerald Ratner’s remarks?
25.What does the story of Gerald Ratner suggest?
29.sustain。 此处应该填入动词原形作从句谓语，上文的先行词reSource uses充当其主语。sustain意为“保持，维持”。
30.In simple terms。 此处应该填入副词或介词短语作状语。in simple terms意为“简言之”。
33.take into account。 此处应该填入动词原形或动词短语。take into account意为“考虑，重视”。
35.using up。 此处应该填人动名词或动名词短语来作介词for的宾语，并和forests进行搭配。usingup意为“耗尽，用光”。
Part Ⅲ Readina Comorehension
36.A)announcing。 动词辨析题。句首出现时间状语today，空格位于系动词is和名词短语thelaunch of…之间，因此空格处需要填人动词的现在分词形式，构成现在进行时。前一句提到，美国教育部正在努力确保所有学生享有接受高质量教育的平等权利。因此，空格处需要填人一个能够与名词launch构成动宾搭配的动词，表示“宣布开始实施一项方案或活动”。由此确定announcing为本题答案，意思是“宣布”。备选词中，distributing意思是“分发，散布”，与此处文意不符，且无法与launch构成动宾搭配，故排除。
37.K)entitled。 动词辨析题。空格前面是系动词are，后面是介词to及其宾语，因此空格处需要填入形容词作表语或者动词的被动语态，并与介词to搭配。上文提到，美国教育部今天宣布开始实施为所有学生提供优秀教育工作者的活动方案，本句解释了实施此方案的原因，即所有孩子都应有权利接受高质量的教育。因此，空格处需要填人一个表示“有权利”或“有资格”的形容词，且能够与介词to搭配，备选形容词中只有entitled同时符合这两项要求，由此确定其为本题答案。be entitled to意思是“有……资格”。备选词中，beneficial意思是“有利的，有益的”，与此处文意不符，排除；qualified意思是“有资格的”，但不能与介词to
41.H)develop。 动词辨析题。空格前面为助动词will，后面为名词短语their own creative Solutions，因此空格处需要填入动词原形，与will构成一般将来时态，并与名词Solutions构成动宾短语。Solutions意思是“解决方案”，因此填入的动词应该表达“想出，找到”或“研究出，制定出”的意义。由此可以确定，动词develop为本题答案，意思是“形成”。备选词中，enhance意思是“增强，提高”，retain意思是“留用”，均不能与Solutions搭配，且与此处文意不符，因此可以排除。
42.J)enhance。 动词辨析题。空格前面是动词短语work together及动词不定式符号to，后面是名词短语our focus，因此空格处需要填入动词原形，且与Our focus构成动宾搭配。根据上下文，教育部长认为我们必须共同努力增强对于某些问题的关注。因此，空格处填人的动词应该表达“增强，增加”的意义，由此可以确定，动词enhance为本题答案，意思是“增强，提高”。备选词中，develop已经用过，直接排除；retain意思是“留用”，与此处文意不符，也可以排除。
43.O)retain。 动词辨析题。根据and前面的两个动词recruit和support及其形式可以判断，空格处需要填入的是动词原形，且与recruit和support构成并列关系，recruit意思是“招募”，support意思是“支持，配备”，宾语都是空格后的effective teachers and principals，由此可以确定，动词retain为本题答案。
46.Some people propose laws be madeto stop McDonald's from attaching toys to its food specials for children.
K) In order to avoid other legislation in America and elsewhere,fast-food companies will have to continue innovating (创新).Walt Riker of McDonald's claims the change it has made in its menu means it offers more healthy items than it did a few years ago."We probably sell more vegetables, more milk, more salads, more apples than any restaurant business in the world," he says.But the recent proposal by a county in California to ban McDonald's from including toys in its high-calorie " Happy Meals ", because legislators believe it attracts children to unhealthy food, suggests there is a lot more left to do.
47.Fast-food firms may not be able tocopewithpressuresfromfoodregulation in the near future.
由题干中的cope with，pressures和food regulation定位到文章A)段画线处。
A)Fast-food firms have to be a thick-skinned bunch.Healthexperts regularly criticise them severely for selling food thatmakes people fat.Critics even complain that McDonald's,whose logo symbolises calorie excess, should not have beenallowed to sponSor the World Cup.These are things fast-foodfirms have learnt to cope with.But not perhaps for muchlonger.The burger business faces more pressure fromregulators at a time when it is already adapting strategies inresponse to shifts in the global economy.
48.Burger King will start to sell Seattle's Bestcoffee to increase sales.
由题干中的Burger rang和Seattle’sBest coffee定位到文章G)段画线处。
G) Companies are alSo trying to get customers to buynew and more items, including drinks.McDonald'sstarted selling better coffee as a challenge toStarbucks.Its "McCafe" line now accounts for anestimated 6% of sales in America.Starbucks has Soldrights to its Seattle's Best coffee brand to BurgerKing, which will start selling it later this year.
49.Some fast-food firms provide healthyfood to give the impression they arehelping to tackle the obesity problem.
由题干中的healthy food，give the impression和obesity定位到文章I)段画线处。
I) But what about those growing waistlines? So far, fast-foodfirms havecleverly avoided government regulation.By providing healthy options, like salads and low-caloriesandwiches, they have at least given the impression ofdoing Something about helping to fight obesity (肥胖症).These offerings are not necessarily loss-leaders, as theybroaden the appeal of outlets to groups of diners that includeSome people who don't want to eat a burger.But customerscannot be forced to order salads instead of fries.
50.During therecession,manycustomers turned to fast food tosave money.
B)Fast food was once thought to be recession-proof.When consumers need to cut spending, the logic goes, cheap mealslike Big Macs and Whoppers become even more attractive.Such"trading down" proved true for much of the latest recession,when fast-food companies picked up customers who could no longer afford to eat at casual restaurants.Traffic was boosted inAmerica, the home of fast food, with discounts and promotions,such as $1 menus and cheap combination meals.
51.Many people eat out less often tosave money in times of recession.
由题于中的eat out，save money和recession定位到文章D)段西线处。
D) But not all fast-food companies have been as fortunate.Many,such as Burger King, have seen sales fall.In a severe recession,while Some people trade down to fast food, many others eat athome more frequently to save money.David Palmer, an analystat UBS, a bank, says smaller fast-food chains in America, suchas Jack in the Box and Carl's Jr., have been hit particularly hardin this downturn because they are competing with the global giantMcDonald's, which increased spending on advertising by morethan 7% last year as others cut back.
52.During the recession, BurgerKing's promotional strategy ofofferinglow-priceditemSoften proved ineffective.
由题干中的Burger King，strategy和low-priced items定位到文章E)段画线处。
E)Some fast-food companies alSo sacrificed their own profits by tryingto give customers better value.During the recession companies setprices low, hoping that once they had tempted customers throughthe door they would be persuaded to order more expensive items.But in many cases that strategy did not work.Last year BurgerKing franchisees (特许经营人) sued (起诉) the company over itsdouble-cheeseburger promotion, claiming it was unfair for them tobe required to sell these for $1 when they cost $1.10 to make.In May a judge ruled in favour of Burger King.Nevertheless, thecompany may still be cursing its decision to promote cheap choiceSover more expensive ones because items on its "value menu" nowaccount for around 20% of all sales, up from 12% last October.
53.Fast-foodrestaurantscanmakealotofmoney by sellingbreakfast.
H) As fast-food companies shift from "super size" to "more buys", they needto keep customer traffic high throughout the day.Many see breakfast as abig opportunity, and not just for fatty food.McDonald's will start sellingporridge (粥) in America next year.Breakfast has the potential to bevery profitable, says Sara Senatore of Berustein, a research firm, becausethe margins can be high.Fast-food companies are alSo adding midday andlate-night snacks, such as blended drinks and wraps.The idea is that by having a greater range of things on the menu, "we can sell to consumers products they want all day, "says Rick Carucci, the chief financial officer of Yum ! Brands.
54.Manyfast-foodcompaniesnowexpect to increase their revenue byintroducing higher-priced items.
由题干中的introducing higher-priced items定位到文章F)段画线处。
F) Analysts expect the fast-food industry to grow modestly thisyear.But the downturn is malting companies rethink theirstrategies.Many are now introducing higher-priced itemsto entice (引诱) consumers away from $1 specials.KFC, adivision of Yum! Brands, which alSo owns Taco Bell and Pizza Hut, has launched a chicken sandwich that costsaround $ 5.And in May Burger King introduced barbecue (烧烤) pork ribs at $ 7 for eight.
55.A newly-passed law asks bigfast-food chains to specify thecalorie count of what theyserve on the menu.
由题干中的a newlypassed law，specify the calorie count和menu定位到文章J)段画线处。
J) In the future, simply offering a healthy option may not be goodenough."Every packaged-food and restaurant company I know isconcerned about regulation right now," says Mr.Palmer of UBS.America's health-reform bill, which Congress passed thisyear, requires restaurant chains with 20 or more outlets to put thecalorie-content of items they serve on the menu.A study by theNational Bureau of Economic Research, which tracked the effectSon Starbucks of a similar calorie-posting law in New York City in2007, found that the average calorie-count per transaction fell 6%and revenue increased 3% at Starbucks stores where a DunkinDonuts outlet was nearby--a sign, it is said, that menu-labellingcould favour chains that have more healthy offerings.
由题干中的high—factor sunscreen定位到首段第一句：If you think a high—factor sunscreen
(防晒霜)keeps you safe from harmful rays，you may be wrong.
由题干中的research in Nature定位到首段第二句：Research in this week’s Nature shows
that while factor 50 reduces the number of melanomas(黑瘤)and delays their occurrence.it can't prevent them.
由题干中的the 2011 Australian study of l，621 people定位到第二段第二句：A 2011 Australian study of 1,621 people found that people randomly selected to apply sunscreen daily had half the rate of melanomas of people who used cream as needed.
由题干中的the second Australian study定位到第二段第五句：The study relied on people
remembering what they had done over each decade of their lives, So it's not entirelv reliable,
由题干中的reduce melanoma rates定位到第四段：The good news is that a combination of sunscreen and covering up can reduce melanoma rates, as shown by Australian figures from their slip-slop-slap campaign.So if there is a heat wave this summer, it would be best for us, too, to slip on a shirt, slop on (抹上) sunscreen and slap on a hat.
由题干中的rich countries定位到首段第一句：Across the rich world，well educated people increasinglv work longer than the less.skilled.
由题干中的deepen the divide定位到首段第三、四句：This gap is part of a deepening divide between the well-educated well-off and the unskiUed poor.Rapid technological advance has raised the incomes of the highly skiUed while Soueezing those of the unslkilled.
由题干中的the experience of the 20th century定位到第二段第三句：The expenence of the 20th century, when greater longevity (长寿) translated into more years in retirement rather than more years at work, has persuaded many observers that this shift will lead to slower economic growth, while the swelling ranks of pensioners will create government budget problems.
由题干中的policy changes in European countries定位到第四段的第二、三句：Many European governments have abandoned policies that used to encourage people to retire early.Rising life expectancy (预期寿命), combined with the replacement of generous defmed-benefit pension plans with less generous defined-contribution ones, means that even the better-off must work longer to have a comfortable retirement.
由题干中的characteristic of work定位到第四段第四至六句：But the changing nature of work alSo plays a big role.Pay has risen sharply for the highly educated, and those people continue to reap rich rewards into old age because these days the educated elderly are more productive than the preceding generation.Technological change may well reinforce that shift:the skills that complement computers, from management knowhow to creativity, do not necessarily decline with age.
Part Ⅳ Translation
China is one of the most ancient civilizations across the world, from which many elements that construct the foundation of the modem world are derived.Now China has the world's fastest growing economy and is experiencing a new industrial revolution.It has alSo launched an ambitious space exploration plan, including the building of a space station by 2020.Currently, being one of the largest exporters in the world, China is attracting massive foreign investment.Meanwhile, it has invested billions of dollars overseas as well.In 2011, China surpassed Japan, becoming the second largest economic entity in the world.
1.翻译第一句时需要注意，“……之一”的表述中，名词使用复数形式，“最古老的文明之一”刚译为one of themost ancient civilizations或one of the oldest civilizations。
2.翻译第二句时，需要注意句子的主干为“元素起源于中国”，谓语动词“起源于”可译为be derived from或originate from；定语“构成现代世界基础的”较长，可处理为定语从旬来修饰先行词“元素”；“构成……基础”可译为cons.Ia-uct the foundation of或form the basis of。由于第一句和第二句均为简单句，都出现了“中国”一词，翻译时既可以单独成句，也可以合二为一。本译文采用后者，将第一句作为主句，第二句处理为定语从句，用介词+which来引导，修饰第一句中的China，从而使译文更加简洁连贯。
4.第四句中“太空探索计划”可直译为space exploration plan，也可意译为plan for exploring the outer space；“启动”可译为launch或start。
5.第五句和第三句结构相似，该句有两种译法。可以翻译为两个并列的简单句，也可以将“中国正在吸引大量外国投资’’译为主句，时态为现在进行时；“是世界最大的出口国之一”采用非谓语结构，译为being one of thelargest exporters in the world，避免单调和重复。
6.第六句为简单句，“在海外投资”译为invest overseas，“数十亿”译为billions of。
7.翻译最后一句时应注意时态。该句表述的是过去的事实，应使用一般过去时。“超越”译为surpass；“成为”这个短语有两种译法，可以将“超越”和“成为”处理为两个并列的动作，译为became the second largesteconomy in the world：也可以将“成为”处理为现在分词作状语，表示结果，译为becoming the second largesteconomic entity in the world。